RESOLUTION DECLARING THAT THE INVESTIGATION AND ARREST OF INDIVIDUALS INVOLVED WITH THE PERSONAL USE, GROWTH, AND POSSESSION OF ENTHEOGENIC PLANTS, INCLUDING THOSE SCHEDULED AT STATE AND FEDERAL LEVELS, BE THE LOWEST PRIORITY FOR THE CITY OF ANN ARBOR
WHEREAS, Entheogenic Plants, defined herein as the full spectrum of plants, fungi, and natural materials and/or their extracted compounds, limited to those containing the following types of compounds: indole amines, tryptamines, and phenethylamines; that can benefit psychological and physical wellness², support and enhance religious and spiritual practices¹⁷, and can reestablish human’s inalienable and direct relationship to nature; and
WHEREAS, substance abuse, addiction, recidivism, trauma, post-traumatic stress symptoms, chronic depression, severe anxiety, end-of-life anxiety, grief, cluster headaches⁹; ²³, and other debilitating conditions are present in our community; and
WHEREAS, the use of Entheogenic Plants, which can catalyze profound experiences of personal and spiritual growth¹, have been shown by scientific and clinical studies and traditional practices to be beneficial to the health and well-being of individuals and communities¹⁷ in addressing these conditions⁷; and
WHEREAS, practices with Entheogenic Plants have long existed and have been considered to be sacred to human cultures and interrelationships with nature for thousands of years¹⁰; and
WHEREAS, individuals seeking to improve their health and well-being through the use of Entheogenic Plants fear arrest and prosecution due to current legal prohibitions; and
WHEREAS, the City of Ann Arbor currently has many other priorities for the use of its funds, staff, and law enforcement resources; and
WHEREAS, the United Nations considers Entheogenic Plant material used for ritual purposes as excluded from Schedule 1 substances; and
WHEREAS, the Entheogenic Plant practices of certain groups are already explicitly protected in the U.S. under the principle of religious freedom; and
WHEREAS, Entheogenic plants such as Ibogaine have been shown to alleviate treatment resistant cases of opiate and methamphetamine addiction at higher rates than other treatment; and
WHEREAS, Entheogenic Plants or combinations of plants such as Ayahuasca contain Dimethyltryptamine (a naturally occurring compound in the human body) that can be beneficial in treating addiction, depression, and in catalyzing profound experiences of personal and spiritual growth¹; and
WHEREAS, Entheogenic plants such as cacti that contain phenethylamine compounds (such as mescaline), can be beneficial in the treatment of drug and alcohol addiction and for individual spiritual growth¹, and have been utilized in sacred initiation and community healing by diverse religious and cultural traditions for millennia and continue to be used for healing and as religious sacraments in modern times¹⁰ ; and
WHEREAS, psilocybin, naturally occurring in Entheogenic mushrooms, can alleviate end-of-life anxiety⁶ for hospice and terminal cancer patients, can reduce prison recidivism⁵; ²¹, can effectively treat substance abuse⁴, depression, and cluster headaches (a Johns Hopkins University study on “healthy-normals,” found that Entheogenic plants can occasion mystical-type experiences, which were considered one of the top five most meaningful experiences in a subject’s life, and positive life-style changes continued in a 14-month follow-up); therefore
BE IT RESOLVED: That the Mayor and City Council hereby declare that it shall be the policy of the City of Ann Arbor that the investigation and arrest of persons for planting, cultivating, purchasing, transporting, distributing, engaging in practices with, or possessing Entheogenic Plants or plant compounds which are on the Federal Schedule 1 list shall be the lowest law enforcement priority for the City of Ann Arbor; and city funds or resources shall not be used in any investigation, detention, arrest, or prosecution arising out of alleged violations of state and federal law regarding the use of Entheogenic Plants; and be it
FURTHER RESOLVED: That this resolution does not authorize or enable any of the following activities: commercial sales or manufacturing of these plants and fungi, possessing or distributing these materials in schools, driving under the influence of these materials, or public disturbance; and be it
FURTHER RESOLVED: That the Mayor and City Council call upon the Washtenaw County District Attorney to cease prosecution of persons involved in the use of Entheogenic Plants or plant-based compounds designated by the federal Controlled Substance Act; and be it
FURTHER RESOLVED: That if any provision of this resolution is declared by a court of competent jurisdiction to be contrary to any statute, regulation, or judicial decision, so that its applicability to any agency, person, or circumstance is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this resolution and its applicability to any other agency, person, or circumstance shall not be affected.
1) Entheogens for Personal and Spiritual Growth
Frecska, E., et al. (2012). Enhancement of Creative Expression and EntopticPhenomena as After-Effects of Repeated Ayahuasca Ceremonies. Journalof Psychoactive Drugs 44(3), pp. 191-199.
Hartogsohn, I. (2018). The Meaning-Enhancing Properties of Psychedelics and TheirMediator Role in Psychedelic Therapy, Spirituality, and Creativity. Frontiers inNeuroscience, 12 (129). doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00129
MacLean, K., et al. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogenpsilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal ofPsychopharmacology, 25(11)1453-1461.
Moro, L., et al. (2011) Voice of the Psychonauts: Coping, Life Purpose, andSpirituality in Psychedelic Drug Users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43 (3), pp.188-198. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2011.605661
Nour, M., etal. (2017): Psychedelics, Personality and Political Perspectives. Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs. D0l:10.1080/02791072.2017.1312643
Sweat, N., et al. (2016). The Associations of Naturalistic Classic Psychedelic Use,Mystical Experience, and Creative Problem Solving. Journal of PsychoactiveDrugs, 48(5), pp. 344-350, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2016.1234090
2) Entheogens and Psychological Wellness
Frecska E., et al., (2016). The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effectsagainst Various Diseases of Civilization. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7(35). doi:10.3389/fphar.2016.00035
McKenna, D. (2004). Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential ofayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges. Pharmacology & Therapeutics102(2), pp. 111-129.
dos Santos, R. et al. (2017). Effects of the Natural (3- Carboline Alkaloid Harmine, aMain Constituent of Ayahuasca, in Memory and in the Hippocampus: A SystematicLiterature Review of Preclinical Studies. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(1), pp. 1-10, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2016.1260189Wilcox, J. (2014). Psilocybin and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs, 46(5), pp. 393-395. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2014.963754
3) Entheogens and Physical Wellness
Djamshidian, A., et al. (2015). “Banisteriopsis caapi, a Forgotten Potential Therapy forParkinson’s Disease?” Movement Disorders Clinical Practice: n/a-n/a.Liu, X., et al., (2017) Harmine is an inflammatory inhibitor through the suppression ofNF-kB signaling. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications,http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.05.126
Ly et al. (2018). Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.Cell Reports 23, pp. 3170-3182.
McCleary, J., et al., (1960). Antibiotic activity of an extract of peyote (LophophoraWilliamii). Economic Botany, 14(3), pp. 247-249.
dos Santos, R. (2014) Immunological Effects of Ayahuasca in Humans. Journal ofPsychoactive Drugs, 46 (5), pp. 383-388.Samoylenkoa, V., et al. (2010). Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAOinhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant toneurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson’s disease. Journal ofEthnopharmacology, 127 (2), pp. 357-367. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.030.
4) Entheogens and Substance Abuse
Bogenschutz, M., et al. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcoholdependence: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Psychopharmacology 29(3), pp.289-299.
Bogenschutz, M., and Forcehimes, A. (2017). Development of a PsychotherapeuticModel for Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcoholism. Journal of HumanisticPsychology, 57(4), pp. 389-414.
Johnson, M. et al. (2017). An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associatedwith naturalistic psychedelic use. Journal of Psychopharmacology 31 (7), pp. 841-850.
de Veen, B. (2017) Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders? Expert Review ofNeurotherapeutics, 17(2), pp. 203-212. DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2016.1220834
5) Entheogens and Recidivism
Romero, S. (March 28, 2015). In Brazil, some inmates get therapy withhallucinogenic tea. The New York Times.
6) Entheogens and Anxiety
Sarris, J., et al. (2013). “Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review ofclinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.” CNS Drugs 27(4), pp. 301-319.
7) Entheogens and Grief
Gonzalez, D., et al. (2017). Potential Use of Ayahuasca in Grief Therapy. OMEGA—Journal of Death and Dying, pp. 1 -26.
8) Ayahuasca and Diabetes
Wang, P. et al., (2015). A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication. Nature Medicine 21, pp. 383-388.
9) Entheogens and Cluster Headaches
Schindler, E., et al. (2015) Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results ofthe Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47:5372-381, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664
10) Historical Use of Entheogens
El-Seedi, H., et al. (2005). Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbondating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas. Journal ofEthnopharmacology 107(1), pp. 238-242.
Guzman, G. (2008). Hallucinogenic Mushrooms in Mexico: An Overview. EconomicBotany, 62(3), pp. 404-412.
Miller, L. et al., (2019). Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America. Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences. DOI :10.1073/pnas. 190217411
Samorini, G. (1992). The Oldest Representations Of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms InThe World (Sahara Desert, 9000 – 7000 B.P.). Integration, Journal of Mind-movingPlants and Culture 2/3.
11) Iboga/lbogaine for Addiction Therapy
Alper, K., et al. (1999). Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine.American Journal of Addictions, 8(3), 234-242. doi:10.1080/105504999305848
Brown, T. K. (2013). Ibogaine in the treatment of substance dependence. CurrentDrug Abuse Reviews, 6(1), 3-16. doi: 10.2174/15672050113109990001
Brown, T. and Alper, K. (2017): Treatment of opioid use disorder with ibogaine:detoxification and drug use outcomes. The American Journal of Drug andAlcohol Abuse. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1320802
Luciano, D. (1998). Observations on treatment with ibogaine. American Journal ofAddictions, 7(1), pp. 89-89. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.1998.tb00472.x
Mash, D., et al. (2001). Ibogaine in the treatment of heroin withdrawal. In K. Alper, & G.A. Cordell (Eds.), The alkaloids: Chemistry and biology (1st ed., Vol. 56, pp. 155—171). London: Academic Press/Elsevier.
Mash, D., et al., (2018) Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and CocaineAbusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations andTreatment Outcomes. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9:529. doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00529
Sheppard, S. G. (1994). A preliminary investigation of ibogaine: Case reports andrecommendations for further study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 77(4),379-385. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(94)90049-3
12) Ayahuasca Experience similar to Near-Death Experience
Liester, M. B. (2013). Near-death experiences and ayahuasca-induced experiencestwo unique pathways to a phenomenologically similar state of consciousness.Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 45(1), p. 24.
13) Ayahuasca for Addiction Therapy
Barbosa, P. et al. (2018) Assessment of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorders AmongReligious Users of Ayahuasca. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9 (136).doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00136
Brierley, D., and Davidson, C. (2012). Developments in harmine pharmacology –Implications for ayahuasca use and drug-dependence treatment. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biology 39(2), pp. 263-272.
Liester, M. and Prickett, J. (2012) Hypotheses Regarding the Mechanisms ofAyahuasca in the Treatment of Addictions. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44 (3),pp. 200-208. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2012.704590
Loizaga-Velder, A. and R. Verres (2014). Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use inthe treatment of substance dependence-qualitative results. Journal of PsychoactiveDrugs 46(1), pp. 63-72.
Mabit, J., et al. (1996). Takiwasi: The Use of Amazonian Shamanism to RehabilitateDrug Addicts. Yearbook of Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy. W.Andritzky. Berlin, International Institute of Cross-Cultural Therapy Research.
Talina, P., and Sanabriab, E. (2017). Ayahuasca’s entwined efficacy: Anethnographic study of ritual healing from addiction. International Journal of DrugPolicy 44, pp. 23-30.
Thomas, G., et al. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from apreliminary observational study in Canada. Current Drug Abuse Review 6(1), pp. 30-42.
14) Ayahuasca and Depression
Anderson, B. (2012). Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Psychedelics and Styles ofReasoning in Psychiatry. Anthropology of Consciousness, 23(1), pp. 44-59.
de L. Osorio, F., et al. (2015). Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca inpatients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report. Revista Brasileira dePsiquiatria 37(1), pp. 13-20.
Palhano-Fontes, F., et al. (2014). The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca in theTreatment of Depression. The Therapeutic Use of Ayahuasca. B. C. Labate andC. Cavnar, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23-39.
dos Santos, R., et al. (2016). Anti-depressive, anxiolytic, and anti-addictive effects ofayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): A systematic review ofclinical trials published in the last 25 years. Therapeutic Advances inPsychopharmacology, 6(3), pp. 193-213. doi:10.1177/2045125316638008
15) Ayahuasca and Personal Growth
Bouso, J. C., et al. (2012). “Personality, Psychopathology, Life Attitudes andNeuropsychological Performance among Ritual Users of Ayahuasca: ALongitudinal Study. PLoS ONE 7(8).
Kuypers, K., et al. (2016). Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking whiledecreasing conventional convergent thinking. Psychopharmacology. DOI10.1007/S00213-016-4377-8
Soler J., et al. (2018). Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in“Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week MindfulnessTraining Program. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9 (224). doi:10.3389/fphar.2018.00224
16) Ayahuasca and Spiritual Growth
Harris, R., and Gurel, L. (2012). A Study of Ayahuasca Use in North America.Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(3): 209-215.
Trichter, S., etal. (2009). Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony noviceparticipants. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 41(2), pp. 121-134.
Tupper, K. (2010). Entheogenic healing: The spiritual effects and therapeutic potentialof ceremonial ayahuasca use. The healing power of spirituality: How faith helpshumans thrive, Volume 3. J. H. Ellens. Santa Barbara, Praeger: pp. 269-282.
Tupper, K. W. (2002). Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of PlantTeachers as Cognitive Tools. Canadian Journal of Education 27(4), pp.499-516.
17) Peyote for treatment of alcohol and drug dependence
Winkelman, M. (2014). Psychedelics as Medicines for Substance AbuseRehabilitation: Evaluating Treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine andAyahuasca. Current Drug Abuse Reviews 7, pp. 101-116.
Calabrese, J. (2007). The Therapeutic Use of Peyote in the Native American ChurchChapter 3 in Vol. 1 of Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens asTreatments. Michael J. Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors). Westport, CT:Praeger/Greenwood.
Feeney, K. (2007). The Legal Basis for Religious Peyote Use. Chapter 13 in Vol 1 ofPsychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments. Michael J.Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.
19) Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety
Blinderman, C. (2016). Psycho-existential distress in cancer patients: A return toentheogens. Journal of Psychopharmacology 30 (12), pp. 1205-1206.
Kelmendi, B., et al. (2016). The role of psychedelics in palliative care reconsidered: Acase for psilocybin. Journal of Psychopharmacology 30(12), pp. 1212-1214.
Ross, S., et al. (2016). Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybintreatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: arandomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), pp. 1165-1180.
20) Entheogens and Reduced Recidivism
Hendricks, P., et al. (2014). Hallucinogen use predicts reduced recidivism amongsubstance-involved offenders under community corrections supervision. Journalof Psychopharmacology 28(1), pp. 62-66.
Walsh, Z. , etal. (2016). Hallucinogen use and intimate partner violence: Prospectiveevidence consistent with protective effects among men with histories of problematicsubstance use. Journal of Psychopharmacology, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1177/0269881116642538.
21) Psilocybin and Treatment-Resistant Depression
Hendricks, P., etal. (2015). Psilocybin, psychological distress, and suicidality.Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(9), pp. 1041-1043.
Lyons, T. and Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). Increased nature relatedness anddecreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistantdepression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), pp. 811-819.
22) Psilocybin and Cluster Headaches
Schindler, E. et al., (2015) Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results ofthe Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47(5),pp. 372-381. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664