1) Entheogens for Personal and Spiritual Growth


Frecska, E., et al. (2012). Enhancement of Creative Expression and Entoptic
Phenomena as After-Effects of Repeated Ayahuasca Ceremonies. Journal
of Psychoactive Drugs 44(3), pp. 191-199.


Hartogsohn, I. (2018). The Meaning-Enhancing Properties of Psychedelics and Their
Mediator Role in Psychedelic Therapy, Spirituality, and Creativity. Frontiers in
Neuroscience, 12 (129). doi:10.3389/fnins.2018.00129


MacLean, K., et al. (2011). Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen
psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness. Journal of
Psychopharmacology, 25(11)1453-1461.


Moro, L., et al. (2011) Voice of the Psychonauts: Coping, Life Purpose, and
Spirituality in Psychedelic Drug Users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 43 (3), pp.
188-198. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2011.605661


Nour, M., etal. (2017): Psychedelics, Personality and Political Perspectives. Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs. D0l:10.1080/02791072.2017.1312643


Sweat, N., et al. (2016). The Associations of Naturalistic Classic Psychedelic Use,
Mystical Experience, and Creative Problem Solving. Journal of Psychoactive
Drugs, 48(5), pp. 344-350, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2016.1234090


2) Entheogens and Psychological Wellness


Frecska E., et al., (2016). The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca: Possible Effects
against Various Diseases of Civilization. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 7(35). doi:
10.3389/fphar.2016.00035


McKenna, D. (2004). Clinical investigations of the therapeutic potential of
ayahuasca: rationale and regulatory challenges. Pharmacology & Therapeutics
102(2), pp. 111-129.


dos Santos, R. et al. (2017). Effects of the Natural (3- Carboline Alkaloid Harmine, a
Main Constituent of Ayahuasca, in Memory and in the Hippocampus: A Systematic
Literature Review of Preclinical Studies. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 49(1), pp. 1-
10, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2016.1260189

Wilcox, J. (2014). Psilocybin and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs, 46(5), pp. 393-395. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2014.963754


3) Entheogens and Physical Wellness


Djamshidian, A., et al. (2015). “Banisteriopsis caapi, a Forgotten Potential Therapy for
Parkinson’s Disease?” Movement Disorders Clinical Practice: n/a-n/a.
Liu, X., et al., (2017) Harmine is an inflammatory inhibitor through the suppression of
NF-kB signaling. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications,
http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.05.126


Ly et al. (2018). Psychedelics Promote Structural and Functional Neural Plasticity.
Cell Reports 23, pp. 3170-3182.


McCleary, J., et al., (1960). Antibiotic activity of an extract of peyote (Lophophora
Williamii). Economic Botany, 14(3), pp. 247-249.


dos Santos, R. (2014) Immunological Effects of Ayahuasca in Humans. Journal of
Psychoactive Drugs, 46 (5), pp. 383-388.
Samoylenkoa, V., et al. (2010). Banisteriopsis caap

i, a unique combination of MAO
inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to
neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson’s disease. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology, 127 (2), pp. 357-367. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.030.


4) Entheogens and Substance Abuse


Bogenschutz, M., et al. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol
dependence: A proof-of-concept study. Journal of Psychopharmacology 29(3), pp.
289-299.


Bogenschutz, M., and Forcehimes, A. (2017). Development of a Psychotherapeutic
Model for Psilocybin-Assisted Treatment of Alcoholism. Journal of Humanistic
Psychology, 57(4), pp. 389-414.


Johnson, M. et al. (2017). An online survey of tobacco smoking cessation associated
with naturalistic psychedelic use. Journal of Psychopharmacology 31 (7), pp. 841-
850.


de Veen, B. (2017) Psilocybin for treating substance use disorders? Expert Review of
Neurotherapeutics, 17(2), pp. 203-212. DOI: 10.1080/14737175.2016.1220834


5) Entheogens and Recidivism


Romero, S. (March 28, 2015). In Brazil, some inmates get therapy with
hallucinogenic tea. The New York Times.


6) Entheogens and Anxiety


Sarris, J., et al. (2013). “Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, part 2: a review of
clinical studies with supporting preclinical evidence.” CNS Drugs 27(4), pp. 301-319.


7) Entheogens and Grief


Gonzalez, D., et al. (2017). Potential Use of Ayahuasca in Grief Therapy. OMEGA—
Journal of Death and Dying, pp. 1 -26.


8) Ayahuasca and Diabetes


Wang, P. et al., (2015). A high-throughput chemical screen reveals that harmine-mediated inhibition of DYRK1A increases human pancreatic beta cell replication. Nature Medicine 21, pp. 383-388.


9) Entheogens and Cluster Headaches


Schindler, E., et al. (2015) Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results of
the Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47:5
372-381, DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664


10) Historical Use of Entheogens


El-Seedi, H., et al. (2005). Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon
dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas. Journal of
Ethnopharmacology 107(1), pp. 238-242.


Guzman, G. (2008). Hallucinogenic Mushrooms in Mexico: An Overview. Economic
Botany, 62(3), pp. 404-412.


Miller, L. et al., (2019). Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America. Proceedings of the National
Academy of Sciences. DOI :10.1073/pnas. 190217411


Samorini, G. (1992). The Oldest Representations Of Hallucinogenic Mushrooms In
The World (Sahara Desert, 9000 – 7000 B.P.). Integration, Journal of Mind-moving
Plants and Culture 2/3.


11) Iboga/lbogaine for Addiction Therapy


Alper, K., et al. (1999). Treatment of acute opioid withdrawal with ibogaine.
American Journal of Addictions, 8(3), 234-242. doi:10.1080/105504999305848


Brown, T. K. (2013). Ibogaine in the treatment of substance dependence. Current
Drug Abuse Reviews, 6(1), 3-16. doi: 10.2174/15672050113109990001


Brown, T. and Alper, K. (2017): Treatment of opioid use disorder with ibogaine:
detoxification and drug use outcomes. The American Journal of Drug and
Alcohol Abuse. DOI: 10.1080/00952990.2017.1320802


Luciano, D. (1998). Observations on treatment with ibogaine. American Journal of
Addictions, 7(1), pp. 89-89. doi:10.1111/j.1521-0391.1998.tb00472.x


Mash, D., et al. (2001). Ibogaine in the treatment of heroin withdrawal. In K. Alper, & G.
A. Cordell (Eds.), The alkaloids: Chemistry and biology (1st ed., Vol. 56, pp. 155—
171). London: Academic Press/Elsevier.


Mash, D., et al., (2018) Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine
Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and
Treatment Outcomes. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9:529. doi:
10.3389/fphar.2018.00529


Sheppard, S. G. (1994). A preliminary investigation of ibogaine: Case reports and
recommendations for further study. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 77(4),
379-385. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(94)90049-3


12) Ayahuasca Experience similar to Near-Death Experience


Liester, M. B. (2013). Near-death experiences and ayahuasca-induced experiencestwo unique pathways to a phenomenologically similar state of consciousness.
Journal of Transpersonal Psychology 45(1), p. 24.


13) Ayahuasca for Addiction Therapy


Barbosa, P. et al. (2018) Assessment of Alcohol and Tobacco Use Disorders Among
Religious Users of Ayahuasca. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9 (136).
doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00136


Brierley, D., and Davidson, C. (2012). Developments in harmine pharmacology –
Implications for ayahuasca use and drug-dependence treatment. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology & Biology 39(2), pp. 263-272.


Liester, M. and Prickett, J. (2012) Hypotheses Regarding the Mechanisms of
Ayahuasca in the Treatment of Addictions. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44 (3),
pp. 200-208. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2012.704590


Loizaga-Velder, A. and R. Verres (2014). Therapeutic effects of ritual ayahuasca use in
the treatment of substance dependence-qualitative results. Journal of Psychoactive
Drugs 46(1), pp. 63-72.


Mabit, J., et al. (1996). Takiwasi: The Use of Amazonian Shamanism to Rehabilitate
Drug Addicts. Yearbook of Cross-Cultural Medicine and Psychotherapy. W.
Andritzky. Berlin, International Institute of Cross-Cultural Therapy Research.


Talina, P., and Sanabriab, E. (2017). Ayahuasca’s entwined efficacy: An
ethnographic study of ritual healing from addiction. International Journal of Drug
Policy 44, pp. 23-30.


Thomas, G., et al. (2013). Ayahuasca-assisted therapy for addiction: results from a
preliminary observational study in Canada. Current Drug Abuse Review 6(1), pp. 30-
42.


14) Ayahuasca and Depression


Anderson, B. (2012). Ayahuasca as Antidepressant? Psychedelics and Styles of
Reasoning in Psychiatry. Anthropology of Consciousness, 23(1), pp. 44-59.


de L. Osorio, F., et al. (2015). Antidepressant effects of a single dose of ayahuasca in
patients with recurrent depression: a preliminary report. Revista Brasileira de
Psiquiatria 37(1), pp. 13-20.


Palhano-Fontes, F., et al. (2014). The Therapeutic Potentials of Ayahuasca in the
Treatment of Depression. The Therapeutic Use of Ayahuasca. B. C. Labate and
C. Cavnar, Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23-39.


dos Santos, R., et al. (2016). Anti-depressive, anxiolytic, and anti-addictive effects of
ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): A systematic review of
clinical trials published in the last 25 years. Therapeutic Advances in
Psychopharmacology, 6(3), pp. 193-213. doi:10.1177/2045125316638008


15) Ayahuasca and Personal Growth


Bouso, J. C., et al. (2012). “Personality, Psychopathology, Life Attitudes and
Neuropsychological Performance among Ritual Users of Ayahuasca: A
Longitudinal Study. PLoS ONE 7(8).


Kuypers, K., et al. (2016). Ayahuasca enhances creative divergent thinking while
decreasing conventional convergent thinking. Psychopharmacology. DOI
10.1007/S00213-016-4377-8


Soler J., et al. (2018). Four Weekly Ayahuasca Sessions Lead to Increases in
“Acceptance” Capacities: A Comparison Study With a Standard 8-Week Mindfulness
Training Program. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 9 (224). doi:
10.3389/fphar.2018.00224


16) Ayahuasca and Spiritual Growth


Harris, R., and Gurel, L. (2012). A Study of Ayahuasca Use in North America.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 44(3): 209-215.


Trichter, S., etal. (2009). Changes in spirituality among ayahuasca ceremony novice
participants. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 41(2), pp. 121-134.


Tupper, K. (2010). Entheogenic healing: The spiritual effects and therapeutic potential
of ceremonial ayahuasca use. The healing power of spirituality: How faith helps
humans thrive, Volume 3. J. H. Ellens. Santa Barbara, Praeger: pp. 269-282.


Tupper, K. W. (2002). Entheogens and Existential Intelligence: The Use of Plant
Teachers as Cognitive Tools. Canadian Journal of Education 27(4), pp.
499-516.


17) Peyote for treatment of alcohol and drug dependence


Winkelman, M. (2014). Psychedelics as Medicines for Substance Abuse
Rehabilitation: Evaluating Treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and
Ayahuasca. Current Drug Abuse Reviews 7, pp. 101-116.


18) Peyote


Calabrese, J. (2007). The Therapeutic Use of Peyote in the Native American Church
Chapter 3 in Vol. 1 of Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as
Treatments. Michael J. Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors). Westport, CT:
Praeger/Greenwood.


Feeney, K. (2007). The Legal Basis for Religious Peyote Use. Chapter 13 in Vol 1 of
Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogens as Treatments. Michael J.
Winkelman and Thomas B. Roberts (editors). Westport, CT: Praeger/Greenwood.


19) Psilocybin for End-of-Life Anxiety


Blinderman, C. (2016). Psycho-existential distress in cancer patients: A return to
entheogens. Journal of Psychopharmacology 30 (12), pp. 1205-1206.


Kelmendi, B., et al. (2016). The role of psychedelics in palliative care reconsidered: A
case for psilocybin. Journal of Psychopharmacology 30(12), pp. 1212-1214.


Ross, S., et al. (2016). Rapid and sustained symptom reduction following psilocybin
treatment for anxiety and depression in patients with life-threatening cancer: a
randomized controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 30(12), pp. 1165-1180.


20) Entheogens and Reduced Recidivism


Hendricks, P., et al. (2014). Hallucinogen use predicts reduced recidivism among
substance-involved offenders under community corrections supervision. Journal
of Psychopharmacology 28(1), pp. 62-66.


Walsh, Z. , etal. (2016). Hallucinogen use and intimate partner violence: Prospective
evidence consistent with protective effects among men with histories of problematic
substance use. Journal of Psychopharmacology, pp. 1-7. DOI: 10.1177/0269881116642538.


21) Psilocybin and Treatment-Resistant Depression


Hendricks, P., etal. (2015). Psilocybin, psychological distress, and suicidality.
Journal of Psychopharmacology, 29(9), pp. 1041-1043.


Lyons, T. and Carhart-Harris, R. (2018). Increased nature relatedness and
decreased authoritarian political views after psilocybin for treatment-resistant
depression. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 32(7), pp. 811-819.


22) Psilocybin and Cluster Headaches


Schindler, E. et al., (2015) Indoleamine Hallucinogens in Cluster Headache: Results of
the Clusterbusters Medication Use Survey, Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47(5),
pp. 372-381. DOI: 10.1080/02791072.2015.1107664